Bacteriology Surveillance




Wisconsin Enteric Pathogens Surveillance (WEPS)

The Wisconsin Enteric Pathogens Surveillance (WEPS) program is a laboratory-based surveillance program designed to identify, serogroup/serotype, molecular subtype (by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) or whole genome sequencing (WGS)), and detect antimicrobial resistance in enteric bacterial pathogens detected in Wisconsin.

The WSLH requests that clinical laboratories submit clinical isolates recovered from all sources (stool, urine, blood, etc.) and/or enrichment broths, or stools in enteric transport medium that were positive using a culture-independent diagnostic test (CIDT), such as PCR or antigen test, for the following organisms:

  • Campylobacter species
  • Shiga toxin-producing E. Coli (STEC)
    • Shiga toxin-positive EIA/CIDT enrichment broths or stool in transport media
    • E. coli O157 isolates
    • Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) isolates
  • Salmonella species
  • Shigella species
  • Yersinia species
  • Vibrio species
  • Aeromonas species
  • Plesiomonas species
  • Any unexpected clusters of organisms of public health significance not listed above
Culture Independent Diagnostic Testing (CIDT)

Many clinical laboratories have transitioned to using culture-independent diagnostic testing (CIDT). This includes methods such as enzyme immunoassay (EIA), lateral flow rapid cartridge assays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and other nucleic acid test-based pathogen panels that do not require organism isolation. The WSLH requests that clinical laboratories promptly submit stools in transport (Cary Blair, Enteric Transport Medium, Para Pak C&S or equivalent) for the following pathogens, in addition to those listed above, for further characterization and surveillance:

  • Diarrheagenic E.coli/Shigella
    • Enteroinvasive E. coli/Shigella (EIEC)
  • Parasites
    • Cryptosporidium*
    • Cyclospora*
    • *NOTE: PCR detection of parasitic pathogens Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora meets the laboratory criteria for a confirmed case. However, PCR-positive stool specimens for these organisms should still be forwarded to WSLH for further surveillance testing.
  • Viruses
    • Rotavirus

Please promptly submit stools positive for the enteric pathogens listed above. At this time, the WSLH is not requesting submission of stool specimens positive for C. difficile only. However, the WSLH would like you to submit stools in which both C. difficile and other pathogen(s) have been detected.

Depending upon the pathogen(s) detected and testing performed, the WSLH may not provide a laboratory report to the submitting clinical laboratory. WSLH testing is for surveillance purposes and will be performed at the discretion of the WSLH and the Wisconsin Division of Public Health epidemiologists. Lack of culture isolation of enteric pathogen(s) does not rule out the presence of the pathogen(s) in the specimen. Test results indicating the presence of reportable enteric pathogens/diseases must be reported to the WDPH as directed by state statute and irrespective of subsequent WSLH test results.


Wisconsin Invasive Bacterial Laboratory Surveillance (IBLS)

The Wisconsin Invasive Bacterial Laboratory Surveillance (IBLS) program is a laboratory-based surveillance program monitoring for invasive bacterial infections. The program is a partnership among the Wisconsin Division of Public Health (WDPH), the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene (WSLH), hospital and reference laboratories, local health departments, physicians, and infection control practitioners.

The IBLS program includes the characterization of both bacterial isolates and patient history for the following organisms isolated from blood, CSF and sterile body sites:

  • Haemophilus influenzae
  • Listeria monocytogenes
  • Neisseria meningitidis
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae

The WSLH requests prompt submission of isolates of invasive pathogens listed above. In the absence of an isolate, please submit CSF specimens which have been determined to contain these pathogens by a laboratory CIDT method.